Language Form and Language Function (Language, Speech, and Communication)

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At 6 years of age children can typically cope with a simple and visually concrete deduction. Dysarthria: muscle weakness which affects the accuracy and power of articulation making speech sound slurred. Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia DVD : a motor speech disorder affecting the planning and co-ordination of muscle movements. Speech may be characterised by inconsistent use of sounds, visible groping for sounds, inability to articulate sound sequences when asked to do so on command, after imitation and difficulties increasing with length and complexity of sound sequence.

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Expressive Language: the choice and arrangement of words into phrases and sentences, taking into account grammatical rules. The language may then be conveyed via speech, sign, symbols or writing.

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Functional Communication: the appropriateness of which language is used within a context. Glue Ear: a fluctuating hearing loss caused by the intermittent build-up of fluid behind the ear drum. Grammar: the rules followed in language; the combination syntax or the modifying of words morphology to form appropriate phrases or sentences e. Inference: any conclusion which one can reasonably be entitled to draw from a sentence or utterance Hurford et al Inference uses implied or assumed information.

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Children begin to infer meaning from approximately years but the skill continues to develop until at least 13 years M Johnson. Information Carrying Words ICW : the number of key words that must be understood for the overall meaning of a spoken or signed utterance to be carried out e. Language Form: how what is said, signed or written is organised e.

Available Languages

Language Delay: language development that is following a normal pattern, but typical of a younger child. Development occurs at a slower rate. Non-literal Language: language which requires prior world knowledge.

Requires the child to exchange a picture of a desired item with another person in order to retrieve the item and thus teach the initiation of communication. In the state of Tennessee, a child may be identified with a speech impairment in one of three areas related to speech:. An articulation, or speech sound impairment refers to the misproduction of individual speech sounds which impact overall intelligibility.

A fluency impairment, refers to episodes of interruptions in the rhythm of speech, often heard as repetitions of sounds and words, unnatural rate of speech, or blocks in the flow of speech. Stuttering it a type of fluency impairment. A voice impairment refers to excessive deficiency in the pitch, intensity, resonance or quality of the vocal mechanism due to chronic misuse or structural abnormalities. Language is the system we use, either with words, gestures, or symbols, to communicate our thoughts and needs.

Language systems have rules about the use of words, symbols, structures, and social and cultural expectations. The structure and organization of language, which includes the sounds and sound combinations, and grammatical rules at the word and sentence levels.

Language: Crash Course Psychology #16

How language is used across settings and partners following social and cultural rules and expectations. Social Communication Benchmarks. Signs of a Speech or Language Delay. Go to TN. Print This Page. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line.

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Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolect , meaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined. Typically, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or native tongue, the language used by those with whom, or by whom, they are brought up from infancy.

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Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism ; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents using different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community—children grow up as bilinguals. Language, as described above, is species-specific to human beings. Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language that is, every individual language , against every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity.

Animal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated.

The Functions of Language

Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees. Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements referred to as bee dances in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of food sources. But food sources are the only known theme of this communication system.

Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from humanity in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function.

Attempts to teach sign language to chimpanzees and other apes through imitation have achieved limited success, though the interpretation of the significance of ape signing ability remains controversial.